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考博英语翻译技巧之重点解析
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考博英语,大部分的院校都会考翻译,在需要考翻译院校中,翻译则占了很主要的一部分,翻译的恰当与否,直接体现着一个考生对于语法的掌握和理解程度。在英语中,被动语态使用范围很广,凡是在不必或不愿说出又或无从说出施动者以及为了便于连贯上下文或者为了强调动作的承受者等场合,往往都用被动语态。而在考博英语翻译中,被动语态的翻译也就成了重点。关于被动语态翻译的注意事项和重点,笔者请来近几年考博英语过关率基本保持在90%以上的华慧考博(400-622-4468)专业老师为各位正在备考的考生们稍作指点,希望可以帮助大家更好的掌握考博英语翻译题型。
   
   考博专业老师提到,关于被动语态的翻译分为以下几种:
   
   
   一、译成汉语主动句。    
   
   1、原句中的主语、谓语不变,译文中没有表示被动 的标志,如“被、把”字等,形式上是主动句,表 达被动意义。例如: Eg. On Practice has been translated into many foreign languages.《实践论》已译成许多国家的文字。 Eg. The whole country was armed in a few days. 几天以内,全国就武装起来了。
   
   2、原句中的主语移到谓语之后,译作宾语。 Eg. Another middle school has been set up in our district. 我们区又办了一所中学。 Eg. 1,200 people had been saved soldiers in the earthquake. 在地震中,战士们已救出1200人。
   
   3、译成带表语的主动句。 Eg. The decision to attack was not taken lightly. 进攻的决定不是轻易作出的。 Eg. In the old society,women were looked down upon. 在旧社会,妇女们是受歧视的。
   
   4、含主语从句的被动句型译为主动句。 以it作形式主语的英语句子,翻译时常要转为主动 形式,有时可加上“有人”、“大家”、“我们” 等不确定主语。例如: Eg. It is reported that the enemy has been breeding new strains of killer viruses. 据报道敌人正在培育新的杀人病毒。Eg. It is suggested that meeting be put off till next Monday. 有人建议会议推迟到下星期一举行。Eg. It is well known that natural light is actually made up of many colours. 众所周知,自然光其实是由许多种颜色构成的。
   
   华慧考博(400-622-4468)老师特别提醒,这类句型还有:it is said that.../It is supposed that.../It must be pointed out that.../It is asserted that.../It is generally considered that...
   
   二、译成汉语被动句   
   
   为了强调被动动作或突出施动者时,可以将英语被动句译为汉语被动句。
   
   1.汉语句中有“被”、“遭受”等词。
     Eg. North China was hit by an unexpected heavy rain,which caused severe flooding. 华北地区遭受了一场意外的大雨袭击,引起了严 重的水灾。Eg. The window pane was broken by the child. 窗上玻璃被这小孩打碎了。  
   
   2.译成“为……所”的结构。
     Eg. Granny Wang was forced by familv circumstances to enter a knitting mill in Shanghai as a child labourer at the age of twelve. 王大妈为家境所迫,十二岁就到上海一家针织厂作童工。 Eg. I was so impressed by these words that I used them later for a Christmas card. 我为这些话所深深感动,后来我就把它们写在圣 诞卡上了。    
   
   三、译成“招”、“使”和“由”字句
   
   Eg. The famous hotel had been practically destroyed by the big fire. 大火使这家著名的旅馆几乎全部毁坏。Eg. The plan is going to be examined first by the research group. 计划将先由研究小组加以研究。Eg. By evening the occupation was complete,and the people were chased off the streets by an eight o'clock curfew. 至傍晚,占领已告完成八点钟开始的宵禁把人们从 街上赶回家。    
   
   四、译成无主语句
   
     Eg. Some measures must be taken to control the water pollution. 必须采取某些措施来控制水污染。 Eg. Methods are found to take these materials out of the rubbish and use them again. 现在已经找到了从垃圾中提取这些材料并加以利用 的方法。    
   
   综上所述,英语被动句多数情况下译成汉语的主动句,只有在特别强调被动动作或特别突出被动句才译成汉语被动句。华慧考博(400-622-4468)辅导老师建议各位考生,要选一种既符合汉语习惯,又保持上下文连贯的译法。同时,既要注意语态转换的一般规则,也要注意其例外情况,有的被动语态形式已习语化了,更是不可忽视的。
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